FOR HEALTHY MUSCLES
Building and maintaining lean muscle mass*
Muscle recovery after intense workout*
The prevention of muscle overtraining*
Increasing the level of growth hormone*
The protein synthesis*
VemoHerb® Glutamine helps the antioxidant defenses to maintain muscle health. [8, 9]
HOW AND WHY IT WORKS?*
Glutamine is the most common amino acid in the human body, synthesized by the organism from another amino acid, called glutamic acid. Glutamine is part of the so-called “conditional amino acids”. The conditional essential amino acids are those that under normal conditions can be synthesized independently by the body, but in certain circumstances become extremely necessary and it is good to get them into the body from an external source. For example, the additional glutamine supplementation has a beneficial effect on heavy physical exertion, prolonged physical activity, or gastrointestinal disorders. 
The bigger part of glutamine is located in muscle tissue, but it can also be found in the liver, lungs, brain, and blood plasma.
Glutamine supplement is used in many vital functions, including protein synthesis and the production of the building blocks of DNA and RNA. Due to its important role in several cellular functions, glutamine can be consumed in higher amounts during intense physical activities.  Glutamine is extremely important for the normal maintenance of healthy digestive and immune systems [2,3]. It is a fact that glutamine is a precursor of the brain mediator glutamate. [1,4,14]
Glutamine is involved in the stimulation of the enzyme glycogen synthase. It controls the synthesis and storage of glycogen fuel in the muscles and liver.
People who exercise hard can affect glutamine levels, causing discomfort to their bodies [5,6]. Supplementing the amino acid glutamine is important in case of muscle loss, for weightlifters, or for active individuals who want to help maintain an optimal immune system  and energy levels. [6,7]
Active substances in 1 dose:
5000 mg L-glutamine
Mix 1 scoop (5000 mg) in 250 ml of water. Take 1-3 doses daily. Be sure to get 1 dose after a workout and 1 dose in the evening before bed.
Recommended daily dose:
1 to 3 scoops a day
VemoHerb ® Glutamine has beneficial effects on the:
Optimal energy levels*
|*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.|
1. Vinicius Cruzat, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Kevin Noel Keane, Rui Curi an Philip Newsholme - Glutamine: Metabolism and Immune Function, Supplementation and Clinical Translation
Glutamine is the most abundant and versatile amino acid in the body. In health and disease, the rate of glutamine consumption by immune cells is similar or greater than glucose. For instance, in vitro and in vivo studies have determined that glutamine is an essential nutrient for lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, macrophage phagocytic plus secretory activities, and neutrophil bacterial killing. Glutamine release to the circulation and availability is mainly controlled by key metabolic organs, such as the gut, liver, and skeletal muscles.
2. Hyun Kim and Hyeyoung Kim - The Roles of Glutamine in the Intestine and Its Implication in Intestinal Diseases
Glutamine, the most abundant free amino acid in the human body, is a major substrate utilized by intestinal cells. The roles of glutamine in intestinal physiology and management of multiple intestinal diseases have been reported. In gut physiology, glutamine promotes enterocyte proliferation, regulates tight junction proteins, suppresses pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, and protects cells against apoptosis and cellular stresses during normal and pathologic conditions.
3. Hyeyoung Kim - Glutamine as an Immunonutrient
Dietary supplementation with nutrients enhancing immune function is beneficial in patients with surgical and critical illness. Malnutrition and immune dysfunction are common features in hospitalized patients. Specific nutrients with immunological and pharmacological effects, when consumed in amounts above the daily requirement, are referred to as immune-enhancing nutrients or immunonutrients. Supplementation of immunonutrients is important especially for patients with immunodeficiency, virus or overwhelming infections accompanied by a state of malnutrition.
4. Y. Zhou, N. C. Danbolt - Glutamate as a neurotransmitter in the healthy brain
Glutamate is the most abundant free amino acid in the brain and is at the crossroad between multiple metabolic pathways. Considering this, it was a surprise to discover that glutamate has excitatory effects on nerve cells, and that it can excite cells to their death in a process now referred to as “excitotoxicity”. This effect is due to glutamate receptors present on the surface of brain cells. Powerful uptake systems (glutamate transporters) prevent excessive activation of these receptors by continuously removing glutamate from the extracellular fluid in the brain.
5. Audrey Yule Coqueiro, Marcelo Macedo Rogero and Julio Tirapegui - Glutamine as an Anti-Fatigue Amino Acid in Sports Nutrition
Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid widely used in sports nutrition, especially because of its immunomodulatory role. Notwithstanding, glutamine plays several other biological functions, such as cell proliferation, energy production, glycogenesis, ammonia buffering, maintenance of the acid-base balance, among others. Thus, this amino acid began to be investigated in sports nutrition beyond its effect on the immune system, attributing to glutamine various properties, such as an anti-fatigue role.
6. Michael Gleeson - Dosing and Efficacy of Glutamine Supplementation in Human Exercise and Sport Training
Some athletes can have high intakes of l-glutamine because of their high energy and protein intakes and also because they consume protein supplements, protein hydrolysates, and free amino acids. Prolonged exercise and periods of heavy training are associated with a decrease in the plasma glutamine concentration and this has been suggested to be a potential cause of the exercise-induced immune impairment and increased susceptibility to infection in athletes.
7.Roberto C. Nava, Micah N. Zuhl, Terence A. Moriarty, Fabiano T. Amorim, Kelsey C. Bourbeau, MS, Anna M. Welch, James J. McCormick, Kelli E. King and Christine M. Mermier - The Effect of Acute Glutamine Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation and Fatigue During Consecutive Days of Simulated Wildland Firefighting
Objective: To examine the effect of oral glutamine supplementation on inflammation and fatigue during and after simulated wildland firefighting (WLFF) tasks in hot conditions over 2 consecutive days.Methods: Eleven men and women ingested a glutamine supplement or a placebo before and after simulated wildland firefighting in an environmental chamber (38 °C, 35% relative humidity). Subjective fatigue, markers of inflammation, and cellular stress were measured pre, post and 4 hours post-exercise on both days.
8. Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Aline Bittencourt B., , Jaqueline Santos Moreira Leite, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt Jr., Julio Tirapegui - Oral free and dipeptide forms of glutamine supplementation attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation induced by endotoxemia
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with L-glutamine plus L-alanine (GLN+ALA), both in the free form and L-alanyl-L-glutamine dipeptide (DIP) in endotoxemic mice. Conclusion: Oral supplementations with GLN+ALA or DIP are effective in attenuating oxidative stress and the proinflammatory responses induced by endotoxemia in mice.
9. Éder Ricardo Petry, Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Thiago Gomes Heck, Jaqueline Santos Moreira Leite, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt Jr., Julio Tirapegui - Alanyl-glutamine and glutamine plus alanine supplements improve skeletal redox status in trained rats: Involvement of heat shock protein pathways
Aims: We hypothesized that oral l-glutamine supplementations could attenuate muscle damage and oxidative stress, mediated by glutathione (GSH) in high-intensity aerobic exercise by increasing the 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1).
10. MacLennan PA, Smith K, Weryk B, Watt PW, Rennie MJ - Inhibition of protein breakdown by glutamine in perfused rat skeletal muscle.
We have assessed the effects of glutamine (Gln) availability on protein breakdown in perfused rat hindlimb by measuring net phenylalanine (Phe) production (an index of protein balance), the dilution of [15N]Phe labelling (an index of mixed protein breakdown) and rate of production of 3-methylhistidine (3-MeH) (an index of myofibrillar breakdown).
11. MacLenna PA, Brown RA, Rennie MJ - A positive relationship between protein synthetic rate and intracellular glutamine concentration in perfused rat skeletal muscle.
During muscle-protein wasting associated with injury and disease the distribution ratio of free glutamine between muscle and blood falls. In pursuing possible consequences of this, we investigated the relationship between the rate of muscle protein synthesis and intramuscular glutamine concentration, manipulated acutely in the isolated perfused rat hindquarter.
12. Brian Street, Christopher Byrne, Roger Eston – Glutamine Supplementation in Recovery From Eccentric Exercise Attenuates Strength Loss and Muscle Soreness
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of glutamine supplementation on indices of recovery following eccentric exercise. In a randomized single-blind placebo-controlled design, 15 physically active males (mean age, 21 ± 1.5 years; mean height, 1.81 ± 0.07 m; mean body mass, 78.4 ± 9.2 kg) were assigned to a control or glutamine intervention group. Each participant performed 100 drop jumps from 0.6m followed by ingestion of 0.3 g · kg−1 body mass of maltodextrin mixed with 750 mL of distilled water and lemon flavoring (Control) or with an additional 0.3 g · kg−1 L-glutamine (Glutamine) at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-exercise.
13. Welbourne TC - Increased plasma bicabonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load
An oral glutamine load was administered to nine healthy subjects to determine the effect on plasma glutamine, bicarbonate, and circulating growth hormone concentrations. Two grams glutamine were dissolved in a cola drink and ingested over a 20-min period 45 min after a light breakfast. Forearm venous blood samples were obtained at zero time and at 30-min intervals for 90 min and compared with time controls obtained 1 wk earlier.
14. Albrecht J, Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz M., Zielinska M, Aschner M - Roles of glutamine in neurotransmission
Glutamine (Gln) is found abundantly in the central nervous system (CNS) where it participates in a variety of metabolic pathways. Its major role in the brain is that of a precursor of the neurotransmitter amino acids: the excitatory amino acids, glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp), and the inhibitory amino acid, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA). The precursor-product relationship between Gln and Glu/GABA in the brain relates to the intercellular compartmentalization of the Gln/Glu(GABA) cycle (GGC).
15. Zachary Legault, Nicholas Bagnall, and Derek S. Kimmerly - The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric Exercise
The study aimed to examine the effects that L-glutamine supplementation has on quadriceps muscle strength and soreness ratings following eccentric exercise. It was hypothesized that glutamine ingestion would quicken the recovery rate of peak force production and decrease muscle soreness ratings over a 72-hr recovery period. Sixteen healthy participants (8♀/8♂; 22 ± 4 years) volunteered in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Supplement conditions consisted of isoenergetic placebo (maltodextrin, 0.6 g·kg-1·day-1) and L-glutamine (0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 + 0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 maltodextrin) ingestion once per day over 72 hr.