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VemoHerb Armageddon is the ultimate pre-training igniter for every athlete who wants to push their workout performance to the highest possible levels!*
Push yourself and your workout to unbelievable limits!
And when you reach that limit, push even further!
- How and Why it works?
- Bio-active ingredients
- Daily dose
- Additional information
- Reviews (6)
- Promo offers
Extremely potent natural pre-workout supplement!
You really have to try VemoHerb® Armageddon, to truly appreciate how good it is! The words are just useless!
When you take VemoHerb® Armageddon something happens! You mix with water…, drink… and 20-30 minutes later… аll you want is to start the workout and crush all your personal records! It will give such a kick-start to your mind-body connection that you will clearly understand the meaning of the phrase “Impossible is Nothing”.
How and Why It Works?
Each Dose Contains:
500 mg of genuine Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris extract, standardized to 60% furostanol saponins, determined as protodioscin.
The Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris extract manufactured by VEMO 99 Ltd is rich in active ingredients and standardized at 60% furostanol saponins determined as Protodioscin.[2, 3] The specific bouquet of furostanol saponins in the Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris have a distinct positive effect on strength, muscle growth, lean body mass, sexuality.* The Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris extract assists the positive nitrogen balance and improves protein synthesis, including in the muscles.* This helps with the body capabilities and endurance in cases of physical and mental overwork.*[5, 6]
4000 mg Citrulline Malate
Citrulline Malate supports the Nitric Oxide production in the body, thus assisting regulation of the body’s energy levels and muscle performance during workouts.* 
2000 mg BCAA s (L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, L-Valine)
The Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) are three protein building (proteinogenic) amino acids — Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine, which share a unique branched chemical structure (hence the name). BCAAs are believed to be are directly absorbed and utilized by the muscles as an energy source, thus help maintaining muscle capacity during workouts and supporting the recovery process after a workout.* VemoHerb® Armageddon incorporates these essential amino acids – Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine in the optimal proportion 2:1:1.
200 mg Caffeine
Caffeine is a powerful stimulant. It enhances energy, supports the body’s capabilities for intense training and supports the normal fat burning process.* It positively influences the function of the central nervous system with regards to stimulation and increased focus.* 
300 mg L-Arginine
L-Arginine supports the Nitric Oxide production, which is very important for the dilation of blood vessels.* Nitric Oxide helps to increase blood flow into the muscles which is the main factor that produces pumps during exercise.* Recent research suggests that Nitric Oxide is directly connected to muscle building.* Latest data also suggests that L-arginine supports the release of HGH and the natural synthesis of Creatine in the body.* L-Arginine supports vasodilation and is thus shown to support the body`s ability to consume and utilize oxygen.* [11, 12]
2000 mg Creatine
A lot of studies suggest the important role of Creatine in supporting the muscle strength, power and growth.* It enhances the workout performance and the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), providing essential energy for muscle contractions.* [13, 14]
300 mg Vitamin C
Vitamin C is essential to a healthy diet, as well as being a very effective antioxidant, acting to alleviate oxidative stress for muscles under heavy loads (workout regime). It influences positively the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of the body, it is thus helpful for recovery after intense training. It can help support the immune system and protein metabolism.* [14, 15]
10 mg Piper Nigrum extract
The Piper Nigrum extract in VemoHerb® Armageddon is standardized to the active ingredient pipperine (min. 95%). Numerous studies suggest that when just 5 mg of such highly concentrated Piper nigrum extract is added to other ingredients, it boosts their absorption by 30-2000%! 
The pack contains
300 g powder
Active substances in dose
500 mg Tribulus (aerial parts and fruit) Extract (Tribulus terrestris L.) (60% furostanol saponins determined as protodioscin)
4000 mg Citrulline Malate
2000 mg BCAAs (L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, L-Valine)
200 mg Caffeine
300 mg L-Arginine
2000 mg Creatine
300 mg Vitamin C
10 mg Piper Nigrum extract
Recommended daily dose
Take 1/2 to 1 scoop a day
Directions for use
Mix 1/2 to 1 scoop (7.5 g–15 g) in 250 ml of water 20-30 min before workout.
The product is a food supplement not a medical drug. The product is not a substitute for a varied diet. Do not exceed the recommended daily dose. It is not recommended for pregnant, nursing women and children!
|*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.|
1. Kostova, I. and Dinchev, D. Saponins in Tribulus terrestris – Chemistry and Bioactivity. Phytochemistry Reviews (2005) 4: 111.
Tribulus terrestris is a valuable herb known for its application in the folk medicine in many parts of the world. Furostanol and spirostanol saponins of tigogenin, neotigogenin, gitogenin, neogitogenin, hecogenin, neohecogenin, diosgenin, chlorogenin, ruscogenin and sarsasapogenin type are frequently found in this plant. Four sulphated saponins of tigogenin and diosgenin type are also isolated. Extracts and steroidal saponins have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Preparations based on the saponin fraction of T. terrestris are used for treatment of infertility and libido disorders in men and women, as well as for treatment of cardiac diseases. Food supplements containing T. terrestris extracts are on sale in USA and Europe with claim of a general stimulating action.
2. Zhai, Fg., Li, HZ., Zhou, FB., Lin, F., Guan, LX. – Effects of saponins of Tribulus terrestris on PPARγ and NF-κB signaling pathways expression in rat brain following cerebral ischemic injury. Med Recapitulate (2015) 21: 4539.
Objective To study and explore the effect of tribulus terrestris on the expression of peroxisome proliferators γ (PPAR γ) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inflammatory signaling pathways in rat brain tissue after focal cerebral ischemia,and further explore its potential mechanisms. Methods According to random number table method, 40 SD rats were randomly equally divided into sham operation group, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model group, low-dose saponins of tribulus terrestris group and high-dose saponins of tribulus terrestris group. Cerebral ischemia reperfusion model was established with suture emboli method in middle cerebral artery of rats. Neurological deficit scores was measured 24 hours after the cerebral reperfusion. Content of NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in rat brain was detected by ELISA; expression levels of PPARγ protein in rat brain was determined by Western blot. Results Compared with the model group, nerve function injury of low dose tribulus terrestris saponin treatment group and high dose group obviously reduced [(1. 8 ± 0. 7) scores, (1. 3 ± 0. 5) scores vs (2. 3 ± 0. 7) scores], the difference was statistically significant (P 0. 05). NF-κB,TNF-α and IL-1 β level of low dose saponins of tribulus group [( 16. 4 ± 1. 3) μg/mg, (257 ± 110) pg/mg, (148 ± 16) pg/mg] and high dose group [(15. 0 ± 1. 2) μg/mg, (665 ± 72) pg/mg, (139 ± 14) pg/mg]were lower than those of the model group [(18. 4 ± 1. 5) μg/mg, (916 ± 128) pg/mg, (169 ± 16) pg/mg] ( P 0. 05). Conclusion Saponins of tribulus terrestris exerts the neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through inhibiting the inflammatory reaction, which may be associated with the increase of the PPARγ protein expression and inhibition of NF-κB inflammation signal pathway.
3. Gauthaman, K. and Ganesan, A. – The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction – an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat. Phytomedicine (2008) 15: 44.
Hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) were evaluated in primates, rabbit and rat to identify its usefulness in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED). TT extract was administered intravenously, as a bolus dose of 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg, in primates for acute study. Rabbits and normal rats were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg of TT extract orally for 8 weeks, for chronic study. In addition, castrated rats were treated either with testosterone cypionate (10mg/kg, subcutaneously; biweekly for 8 weeks) or TT orally (5mg/kg daily for 8 weeks). Blood samples were analyzed for testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels using radioimmunoassay. In primates, the increases in T (52%), DHT (31%) and DHEAS (29%) at 7.5mg/kg were statistically significant. In rabbits, both T and DHT were increased compared to control, however, only the increases in DHT (by 30% and 32% at 5 and 10mg/kg) were statistically significant. In castrated rats, increases in T levels by 51% and 25% were observed with T and TT extract respectively that were statistically significant. TT increases some of the sex hormones, possibly due to the presence of protodioscin in the extract. TT may be useful in mild to moderate cases of ED.
4. Brown, G., Vukovich, M., Reifenrath, T., Uhl, N., Parsons, K., Sharp, R. and King, D. – Effects of Anabolic Precursors on Serum Testosterone Concentrations and Adaptations to Resistance Training in Young Men. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism (2000) 10: 340.
The effects of androgen precursors, combined with herbal extracts designed to enhance testosterone formation and reduce conversion of androgens to estrogens was studied in young men. Subjects performed 3 days of resistance training per week for 8 weeks. Each day during Weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8, subjects consumed either placebo (PL; n = 10) or a supplement (ANDRO-6; n = 10), which contained daily doses of 300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg DHEA, 750 mg Tribulus terrestris, 625 mg Chrysin, 300 mg Indole-3-carbinol, and 540 mg Saw palmetto. Serum androstenedione concentrations were higher in ANDRO-6 after 2, 5, and 8 weeks (p <.05), while serum concentrations of free and total testosterone were unchanged in both groups. Serum estradiol was elevated at Weeks 2, 5, and 8 in ANDRO-6 (p <.05), and serum estrone was elevated at Weeks 5 and 8 (p <.05). Muscle strength increased (p <.05) similarly from Weeks 0 to 4, and again from Weeks 4 to 8 in both treatment groups. The acute effect of one third of the daily dose of ANDRO-6 and PL was studied in 10 men (23 +/- 4 years). Serum androstenedione concentrations were elevated (p <.05) in ANDRO-6 from 150 to 360 min after ingestion, while serum free or total testosterone concentrations were unchanged. These data provide evidence that the addition of these herbal extracts to androstenedione does not result in increased serum testosterone concentrations, reduce the estrogenic effect of androstenedione, and does not augment the adaptations to resistance training.
5. Akhtari, E., Raisi, F., Keshavarz, M., Hosseini, H., Sohrabvand, F., Bioos, S., Kamalinejad, M. and Ghobadi, A. – Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2014) 22: 40.
Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p < 0.001), desire (p < 0.001), arousal (p = 0.037), lubrication (p < 0.001), satisfaction (p < 0.001) and pain (p = 0.041) domains of FSFI. Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted.
6. Mameri Filho J., Haidar, MA, Soares, Junior JM., Baracat, EC. – Effects of the association of estrogen and androgen in postmenopausal women. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet (2005) 27: 118.
To evaluate the effects of the association of estrogen and androgen on the quality of life and sexuality of women during climacterium. Ninety-six postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms and sexual dysfunction were included. The participants were randomly divided into three treatment groups with 32 pacients each: placebo, conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (0.625 mg per day) and CEE (0.625 mg per day) associated with methyltestosterone (2.5 mg per day). The length of the treatment period was three months. The Women Health Questionnaire (WHQ) and the Modified Sexuality Questionnaire were applied to evaluate the quality of life and sexuality before and after the treatment. Some parameters of cardiovascular risk, endometrial echo and hepatic toxicity were evaluated. ANOVA was used for data analysis followed by the Fisher test and the Shapiro-Wilk post hoc test. The improvement in WHQ parameters was significant in the hormonal treatment groups (CEE and CEE + methyltestosterone) compared to the placebo group. However, there were no differences in somatic symptoms among the three groups. The association of estrogen with androgen significantly improved sexual function (score (mean): 64 vs 67, p<0.05) and depressive humor (score (mean): 75 vs 80, p<0.05) compared to estrogen alone. This therapy also presented a large number of WHQ questions with a high score (p<0.05). The use of CEE associated with methyltestosterone decreased the total cholesterol (212±42 and 194±43, before and after the treatment, respectively) and HDL colesterol (56±16 and 48±14, before and after the treatment, respectively), and slightly increased the endometrial echo (4.7±2.3 and 5.5±2.3, before and after the treatment, respectively). No signifcant changes in liver enzymes during the treatment period was detected. Estrogen associated with methyltestosterone resulted in significant improvement in the quality of life and sexuality of postmenopausal women. This effect was superior to estrogen alone and placebo. The effect of treatment with the estrogen-androgen association was evident regarding depressive humor and sexual function questions of the WHQ.
7. Bendahan, D. – Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British Journal of Sports Medicine (2002) 36: 282.
Previous studies have shown an antiasthenic effect of citrulline/malate (CM) but the mechanism of action at the muscular level remains unknown. Eighteen men complaining of fatigue but with no documented disease were included in the study. A rest-exercise (finger flexions)-recovery protocol was performed twice before (D-7 and D0), three times during (D3, D8, D15), and once after (D22) 15 days of oral supplementation with 6 g/day CM. Metabolism of the flexor digitorum superficialis was analysed by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4.7 T.Metabolic variables measured twice before CM ingestion showed no differences, indicating good reproducibility of measurements and no learning effect from repeating the exercise protocol. CM ingestion resulted in a significant reduction in the sensation of fatigue, a 34% increase in the rate of oxidative ATP production during exercise, and a 20% increase in the rate of phosphocreatine recovery after exercise, indicating a larger contribution of oxidative ATP synthesis to energy production. Considering subjects individually and variables characterising aerobic function, extrema were measured after either eight or 15 days of treatment, indicating chronological heterogeneity of treatment induced changes. One way analysis of variance confirmed improved aerobic function, which may be the result of an enhanced malate supply activating ATP production from the tricarboxylic acid cycle through anaplerotic reactions. The changes in muscle metabolism produced by CM treatment indicate that CM may promote aerobic energy production.
8. Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., La Bounty, P., Taylor, L., Nelson, M., Greenwood, M., Ziegenfuss, T., Lopez, H., Hoffman, J., Stout, J., Schmitz, S., Collins, R., Kalman, D., Antonio, J. and Kreider, R. – International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2013) 10: 1.
Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9. Diabetics and individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular, metabolic, hepatorenal, and neurologic disease who are taking medications that may be affected by high glycemic load foods, caffeine, and/or other stimulants should avoid use of ED and/or ES unless approved by their physician.
9. Reidy, P. and Rasmussen, B. – Role of Ingested Amino Acids and Protein in the Promotion of Resistance Exercise–Induced Muscle Protein Anabolism1–3. The Journal of Nutrition (2016) 146: 155.
The goal of this critical review is to comprehensively assess the evidence for the molecular, physiologic, and phenotypic skeletal muscle responses to resistance exercise (RE) combined with the nutritional intervention of protein and/or amino acid (AA) ingestion in young adults. We gathered the literature regarding the translational response in human skeletal muscle to acute exposure to RE and protein/AA supplements and the literature describing the phenotypic skeletal muscle adaptation to RE and nutritional interventions. Supplementation of protein/AAs with RE exhibited clear protein dose-dependent effects on translational regulation (protein synthesis) through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, which was most apparent through increases in p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation, compared with postexercise recovery in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. These acute findings were critically tested via long-term exposure to RE training (RET) and protein/AA supplementation, and it was determined that a diminishing protein/AA supplement effect occurs over a prolonged exposure stimulus after exercise training. Furthermore, we found that protein/AA supplements, combined with RET, produced a positive, albeit minor, effect on the promotion of lean mass growth (when assessed in >20 participants/treatment); a negligible effect on muscle mass; and a negligible to no additional effect on strength. A potential concern we discovered was that the majority of the exercise training studies were underpowered in their ability to discern effects of protein/AA supplementation. Regardless, even when using optimal methodology and large sample sizes, it is clear that the effect size for protein/AA supplementation is low and likely limited to a subset of individuals because the individual variability is high. With regard to nutritional intakes, total protein intake per day, rather than protein timing or quality, appears to be more of a factor on this effect during long-term exercise interventions. There were no differences in strength or mass/muscle mass on RET outcomes between protein types when a leucine threshold (>2 g/dose) was reached. Future research with larger sample sizes and more homogeneity in design is necessary to understand the underlying adaptations and to better evaluate the individual variability in the muscle-adaptive response to protein/AA supplementation during RET.
10. Cappelletti, S., Daria, P., Sani, G. and Aromatario, M. – Caffeine: Cognitive and Physical Performance Enhancer or Psychoactive Drug?. Current Neuropharmacology (2015) 13: 71.
Caffeine use is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly concentration and memory enhancement and physical performance improvement. Coffee and caffeine-containing products affect the cardiovascular system, with their positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, and the central nervous system, with their locomotor activity stimulation and anxiogenic-like effects. Thus, it is of interest to examine whether these effects could be detrimental for health. Furthermore, caffeine abuse and dependence are becoming more and more common and can lead to caffeine intoxication, which puts individuals at risk for premature and unnatural death. The present review summarizes the main findings concerning caffeine’s mechanisms of action (focusing on adenosine antagonism, intracellular calcium mobilization, and phosphodiesterases inhibition), use, abuse, dependence, intoxication, and lethal effects. It also suggests that the concepts of toxic and lethal doses are relative, since doses below the toxic and/or lethal range may play a causal role in intoxication or death. This could be due to caffeine’s interaction with other substances or to the individuals’ preexisting metabolism alterations or diseases.
11. Tsuboi, T., Maeda, M. and Hayashi, T. – Administration of L-arginine plus L-citrulline or L-citrulline alone successfully retarded endothelial senescence. PLOS ONE (2018) 13: p.e0192252.
L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation has been shown to have several beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Nitric oxide (NO) protects against the progression of atherosclerosis and is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which converts L-arginine (L-Arg) into L-citrulline (L-Cit). Our previous study revealed that chronic administration of a combination of L-Cit and L- Arg has a better therapeutic effect on high cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. We investigated how L-Arg and L-Cit affect endothelial function, aging and atherosclerosis. Following a 3-day stimulation of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) with high glucose (HG: 22 mM) and L-Arg (300 μM), L-Cit (300 μM) or L-Arg plus L-Cit (LALC: each 150 μM) supplementation, endothelial senescence and function were evaluated. These amino acids were also administered to dyslipidemic type 2 diabetic (ZDFM) rats fed a high cholesterol diet. They were fed L-Arg or L-Cit or LALC for four weeks. Aortic senescence was investigated by measuring senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal), telomerase activity, DNA damage and p16INK4a protein expression. Only L-Cit and LALC supplementation retarded the HG-induced endothelial senescence, as evaluated by SA-ß-gal activity, a widely used marker of cellular senescence, p16INK4a expression, a senescence-related protein, and DNA damage. Under HG conditions, L-Cit and LCLA restored telomerase activity to levels observed under normal glucose (NG) conditions. Under HG conditions, L-Cit decreased ROS production, as measured by CM-H2DCFDA and the expression of p67phox, a major component of NADPH oxidase. Under HG conditions, L-Cit and LALC increased NO production, as measured by DAF-2AM. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated eNOS were decreased under HG conditions and L-Cit and LALC significantly increased these levels. Arginase 2 protein expression increased under the HG conditions, and L-Cit and LALC significantly attenuated this effect. In ZDFM rats, SA-ß-gal activity was detected on the aortic endothelial surface; however, L-Cit and LALC reduced these levels. L-Cit and LALC both decreased the proportion of senescent cells. Furthermore, treatment with LALC for 4 weeks increased plasma NO production. Therefore conclusively, L-citrulline supplementation rescued NO levels better than L-arginine supplementation by inhibiting ROS production and arginase 2 protein expression. Consequently, L-Cit and LCLA supplementation retaeded HG-induced endothelial senescence.
12. Smeets, E., Schutzler, S., Wei, J., Azhar, G. and Wolfe, R. – Do anabolic nutritional supplements stimulate human growth hormone secretion in elderly women with heart failure? Physiological Reports (2017) 5: p.e13366.
Growth hormone treatment has gained attention over the past decade as a treatment for heart failure. Human growth hormone (HGH) must be administered by injections (usually daily), so there is considerable advantage to stimulation of endogenous secretion by amino acid-based nutritional supplementation. However, studies investigating the effect of amino acid (AA) supplementation show conflicting results. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the effect of nutritional supplementation on HGH production in elderly women with heart failure. Eight elderly women with heart failure participated in this randomized cross-over study. Plasma HGH concentration was measured before and for 4 h following ingestion of a mixture of protein, carbohydrate, and fat or an AA beverage. HGH concentration was determined with ELISA kits and AA concentrations were analyzed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS). Linear mixed models was performed to analyze the effect of time, treatment, and interaction. Plasma arginine and lysine concentrations were significantly higher after consumption of the AA drink compared to the mixture of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Nonetheless, only ingestion of the protein, carbohydrate, and fat mixture (meal replacement) increased HGH concentration. HGH concentration was increased in elderly women with heart failure following consumption of a meal replacement containing protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Consumption of a mixture of amino acids failed to increase HGH concentration despite significantly greater elevations in plasma amino acid concentrations, including arginine and lysine. The stimulatory effect of the protein/carbohydrate/fat mixture was presumably mediated by factors other than increases in free amino acid concentrations.
13. Heaton, L., Davis, J., Rawson, E., Nuccio, R., Witard, O., Stein, K., Baar, K., Carter, J. and Baker, L. – Selected In-Season Nutritional Strategies to Enhance Recovery for Team Sport Athletes: A Practical Overview. Sports Medicine (2017) 47: 2201.
Team sport athletes face a variety of nutritional challenges related to recovery during the competitive season. The purpose of this article is to review nutrition strategies related to muscle regeneration, glycogen restoration, fatigue, physical and immune health, and preparation for subsequent training bouts and competitions. Given the limited opportunities to recover between training bouts and games throughout the competitive season, athletes must be deliberate in their recovery strategy. Foundational components of recovery related to protein, carbohydrates, and fluid have been extensively reviewed and accepted. Micronutrients and supplements that may be efficacious for promoting recovery include vitamin D, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, creatine, collagen/vitamin C, and antioxidants. Curcumin and bromelain may also provide a recovery benefit during the competitive season but future research is warranted prior to incorporating supplemental dosages into the athlete’s diet. Air travel poses nutritional challenges related to nutrient timing and quality. Incorporating strategies to consume efficacious micronutrients and ingredients is necessary to support athlete recovery in season.
14. Rawson, E., Miles, M. and Larson-Meyer, D. – Dietary Supplements for Health, Adaptation, and Recovery in Athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism (2018) 19: 1.
Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve: recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Omega 3-fatty acid supplementation may also reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mTBI. Replenishment of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency will likely improve some aspects of immune, bone, and muscle health. Probiotic supplementation can reduce the incidence, duration, and severity of upper respiratory tract infection, which may indirectly improve training or competitive performance. Preliminary data show that gelatin and/or collagen may improve connective tissue health. Some anti-inflammatory supplements, such as curcumin or tart cherry juice, may reduce inflammation and possibly delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Beta-hydroxy beta-methyl butyrate (HMB) does not consistently increase strength and/or lean mass or reduce markers of muscle damage, but more research on recovery from injury that includes periods of extreme inactivity is needed. Several dietary supplements, including creatine monohydrate, omega 3-fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and curcumin/tart cherry juice could help athletes train and/or compete more effectively.
15. Carr, A. and Maggini, S. – Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients (2017) 9: 1211.
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100-200 mg/day), which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram) doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand.
16. Butt, M., Pasha, I., Sultan, M., Randhawa, M., Saeed, F. and Ahmed, W. – Black Pepper and Health Claims: A Comprehensive Treatise. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (2013) 53: 875.
For millennia, spices have been an integral part of human diets and commerce. Recently, the widespread recognition of diet-health linkages bolsters their dietary importance. The bioactive components present in them are of considerable significance owing to their therapeutic potential against various ailments. They provide physiological benefits or prevent chronic ailment in addition to the fundamental nutrition and often included in the category of functional foods. Black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) is an important healthy food owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and gastro-protective modules. Black pepper, with piperine as an active ingredient, holds rich phytochemistry that also includes volatile oil, oleoresins, and alkaloids. More recently, cell-culture studies and animal modeling predicted the role of black pepper against number of maladies. The free-radical scavenging activity of black pepper and its active ingredients might be helpful in chemoprevention and controlling progression of tumor growth. Additionally, the key alkaloid components of Piper Nigrum, that is, piperine assist in cognitive brain functioning, boost nutrient’s absorption and improve gastrointestinal functionality. In this comprehensive treatise, efforts are made to elucidate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, gastro-protective, and antidepressant activities of black pepper. Moreover, the synergistic interaction of black pepper with different drugs and nutrients is the limelight of the manuscript. However, the aforementioned health-promoting benefits associated with black pepper are proven in animal modeling. Thus, there is a need to conduct controlled randomized trials in human subjects, cohort studies, and meta-analyses. Such future studies would be helpful in recommending its application in diet-based regimens to prevent various ailments.