VemoHerb Bulgarian Tribulus

25.50 

Description

Really effective herbal supplement based on potent geniune Bulgarian Tribulus extract!

Increases strength, muscle growth and sexual desire*

How and Why It Works?

The properties of VemoHerb® Bulgarian Тribulus are due to the presence of steroidal saponins of furostanol type (60% determined as protodioscin). [1, 2]

The furostanol saponins are active substances, that support the production of sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) [3-5], support the central nervous system [6, 7], and are believed to have anabolic character.* [2] They work on testosterone levels in men, supporting the hormonal balance with no side effects, support prostate health, and aid in assuring the normal levels of these hormones and their metabolites.* [2, 3, 4, 8 , 9, 10] In women, they work on the levels of pregnenolone, progesterone, and estrogens and enhance the libido, which may help support the physical and psycho-emotional health of a woman.* [5, 11, 12]

VemoHerb® Bulgarian Тribulus enhances the energy during daily trainings [2, 13-15], helps the body rid itself of toxins formed during physical stress [10, 15], and may help in decreasing fat [2, 16] while increasing muscle strength and growth.* [2, 13]

VemoHerb® Bulgarian Тribulus is a non-hormonal product of plant origin, taken for increasing sexual desire, helping with natural testosterone production [1, 3, 4, 8, 17, 18], and maintaining the levels of cortisol and estradiol in the body in optimal ranges.* [3]

The main active ingredients of furostanol type in the Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris extract are protodioscin and prototribestin [1, 2, 19], which support the production of luteinizing hormone and the secretion of the sex hormones.* [3, 4, 20] Protodioscin helps support a positive nitrogen balance and improves protein synthesis, including in the muscles.* Studies show that the Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris extract contains higher concentration of protodioscin compared to extracts from plants growing in other parts of the world.* [1] This helps the body’s abilities and endurance in cases of physical and mental overwork.* [2, 15]

During intake, the product shows high absorption in the body and increases the coefficient of protein efficacy. It is used in bodybuilding programs and in different recovery formulas for increasing muscle strength and growth. The herbal supplement VemoHerb® Bulgarian Тribulus is very suitable for athletes in the preparatory and the active period and in the period of recovering after physical exhaustion from exercise.* [13, 14, 15] Thus, the application of the product is for athletes and people who do sports for health and to be in good shape.* [2, 13 , 14, 15, 21]

VemoHerb® Bulgarian Тribulus supports the sexual health of men and women, helps with changes during menopause in women and also with “male menopause”, and helps maintain muscle capacity and libido.* [2, 5, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 20, 22-24]

The product VemoHerb® Bulgarian Tribulus of VEMO 99 Ltd differentiate from the other similar products mainly by:

  • Using top-quality extract from wild-grown herb, gathered at a specific phase of growth in ecologically clean regions.* The herb is dried and stored according to all technological requirements to guarantee preservation and maximum content of its active substances.*
  • Unique know-how technology for obtaining potent herbal extract from the plant raw material that provides 60% furostanol saponins with prevailing component Protodioscin.*
  • Offering a refined herbal product with guaranteed constant quality, containing suitable combination of furostanol saponins, providing the utmost results for our clients.*

The pack contains

90 capsules

Active substances in one capsule

200 mg Tribulus (aerial parts and fruit) Extract (Tribulus terrestris L.) (60% furostanol saponins determined as protodioscin)

Recommended daily dose

3-6 capsules daily – take 1-2 capsules 3 times a day

Directions for use

Take between the meals or as directed on the label.

The product is a food supplement not a medical drug. The product is not a substitute for a varied diet. Do not exceed the recommended daily dose. It is not recommended for pregnant, nursing women and children!

References:

1. Kostova, I. & Dinchev, D. Saponins in Tribulus terrestris – Chemistry and Bioactivity

Tribulus terrestris is a valuable herb known for its application in the folk medicine in many parts of the world. Furostanol and spirostanol saponins of tigogenin, neotigogenin, gitogenin, neogitogenin, hecogenin, neohecogenin, diosgenin, chlorogenin, ruscogenin and sarsasapogenin type are frequently found in this plant. Four sulphated saponins of tigogenin and diosgenin type are also isolated. Extracts and steroidal saponins have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Preparations based on the saponin fraction of T. terrestris are used for treatment of infertility and libido disorders in men and women, as well as for treatment of cardiac diseases. Food supplements containing T. terrestris extracts are on sale in USA and Europe with claim of a general stimulating action.

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2. Wenyi Zhu, Yijie Du, Hong Meng, Yinmao Dong and Li Li – A review of traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Tribulus terrestris

Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) is an annual plant of the family Zygophyllaceae that has been used for generations to energize, vitalize, and improve sexual function and physical performance in men. The fruits and roots of TT have been used as a folk medicine for thousands of years in China, India, Sudan, and Pakistan. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, such as saponins and flavonoids, have been isolated and identified from TT that are responsible alone or in combination for various pharmacological activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology and overuse of TT and provides evidence for better medicinal usage of TT.

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3. Milanov, S., E. Maleeva, M. Tashkov. – Tribestan effect on the concentration of some hormones in the serum of healthy subjects (1981)

Tribestan effect has been studied on the serum concentration of hypophyseal hormones, of ACTH, STH, LH, FSH, adrenal hormone aldosterone and cortisol and sex hormones – testosterone and estradiol. The experiments have been carried out on 8 males and 8 females, aged 28 – 45 years of age. The product was perorally administered in a single dose of 250 mg, three times daily for 5 days. Serum samples were withdrawn at 8 a.m. and 12 a.m., prior to and post treatment. The product has been established not to change essentially the concentrations of adrenal hormones and of ACTH. The hypophyseal-gonadal axis however has significantly been affected in the females with predominantly increased concentration of FSH and estradiol and in the males – mainly of LH and the testosterone. The mechanism of that action is presumed to be complicated and realized both by direct effect on gonadal apparatus and by the tropic hormones. The probable established changes in the concentration of the hormones studied do not get out of the frames of the physiological limits. The lyophilized extract of Tribulus terrestris, introduced in veterinary practice as TB-68, has pronounced sex-stimulating function. The initial studies of this product showed that it stimulates the spermatogenesis of albino rats (Vankov S., et al., 1973) and enhanced the ovulation of female rats (Vankov S. et al. 1973). Zarkova S. (1976) has also established in rats an increased number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes as well as increase of neutral mucopolysaccharides in seminiferous tubules of the testes. Gendzhev Z. and S. Zarkova, in other experiments (1978) proved the increase of spermatic reserve in the epididymis of rats. With the view to the need of human medicine of a product stimulating sexual function, Tribestan was formulated on the base of the indicated phytochemical product. It contains saponins of furostanol type (Tomova M. et al., 1978). The first studies of Tribestan confirmed its high sex-stimulating activity in experimental animals (Zarkova S., 1981). Later, the clinical studies established a similar stimulating effect in humans as well (Protich M. at al. 1981). The present study was carried out with a view to throwing light on some aspects of the mechanism of that action of Tribestan, aiming at attaining an effect from the product on the serum concentration of some hypophyseal, sexual and adrenal hormones.

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4. Gauthaman, K. and Ganesan, A. – The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction – an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat Phytomedicine (2008) 15: 44.

Hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) were evaluated in primates, rabbit and rat to identify its usefulness in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED). TT extract was administered intravenously, as a bolus dose of 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg, in primates for acute study. Rabbits and normal rats were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg of TT extract orally for 8 weeks, for chronic study. In addition, castrated rats were treated either with testosterone cypionate (10mg/kg, subcutaneously; biweekly for 8 weeks) or TT orally (5mg/kg daily for 8 weeks). Blood samples were analyzed for testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels using radioimmunoassay. In primates, the increases in T (52%), DHT (31%) and DHEAS (29%) at 7.5mg/kg were statistically significant. In rabbits, both T and DHT were increased compared to control, however, only the increases in DHT (by 30% and 32% at 5 and 10mg/kg) were statistically significant. In castrated rats, increases in T levels by 51% and 25% were observed with T and TT extract respectively that were statistically significant. TT increases some of the sex hormones, possibly due to the presence of protodioscin in the extract. TT may be useful in mild to moderate cases of ED.

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5. Justino Mameri Filho, Mauro Abi Haidar, José Maria Soares Júnior, Edmund Chada Baracat – Effects of the association of estrogen and androgen in postmenopausal women

PURPOSE: to evaluate the effects of the association of estrogen and androgen on the quality of life and sexuality of women during climacterium.

METHODS: ninety-six postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms and sexual dysfunction were included. The participants were randomly divided into three treatment groups with 32 pacients each: placebo, conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (0.625 mg per day) and CEE (0.625 mg per day) associated with methyltestosterone (2.5 mg per day). The length of the treatment period was three months. The Women Health Questionnaire (WHQ) and the Modified Sexuality Questionnaire were applied to evaluate the quality of life and sexuality before and after the treatment. Some parameters of cardiovascular risk, endometrial echo and hepatic toxicity were evaluated. ANOVA was used for data analysis followed by the Fisher test and the Shapiro-Wilk post hoc test.

RESULTS: the improvement in WHQ parameters was significant in the hormonal treatment groups (CEE and CEE + methyltestosterone) compared to the placebo group. However, there were no differences in somatic symptoms among the three groups. The association of estrogen with androgen significantly improved sexual function (score (mean): 64 vs 67, p<0.05) and depressive humor (score (mean): 75 vs 80, p<0.05) compared to estrogen alone. This therapy also presented a large number of WHQ questions with a high score (p<0.05). The use of CEE associated with methyltestosterone decreased the total cholesterol (212±42 and 194±43, before and after the treatment, respectively) and HDL colesterol (56±16 and 48±14, before and after the treatment, respectively), and slightly increased the endometrial echo (4.7±2.3 and 5.5±2.3, before and after the treatment, respectively). No signifcant changes in liver enzymes during the treatment period was detected.

CONCLUSIONS: estrogen associated with methyltestosterone resulted in significant improvement in the quality of life and sexuality of postmenopausal women. This effect was superior to estrogen alone and placebo. The effect of treatment with the estrogen-androgen association was evident regarding depressive humor and sexual function questions of the WHQ.

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6. Mengquan Lia Yue Guanb Jiaqi Liua Fengguo Zhaia Xiuping Zhanga Lixin Guana – Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by which Total Saponin Extracted from Tribulus Terrestris Protects Against Artherosclerosis.

BACKGROUND/AIMS:

Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT) has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis.

METHODS:

Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT); Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca(2+) was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2) was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting.

RESULTS:

TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II.

CONCLUSION:

These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis.

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7. Zhai, Fg., Li, HZ., Zhou, FB., Lin, F., Guan, LX. – Effects of saponins of Tribulus terrestris on PPARγ and NF-κB signaling pathways expression in rat brain following cerebral ischemic injury Med Recapitulate (2015) 21: 4539.

Objective To study and explore the effect of tribulus terrestris on the expression of peroxisome proliferators γ (PPAR γ) and nuclear factor κB( NF-κB) inflammatory signaling pathways in rat brain tissue after focal cerebral ischemia,and further explore its potential mechanisms. Methods According to random number table method,40 SD rats were randomly equally divided into sham operation group,cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model group, low-dose saponins of tribulus terrestris group and high-dose saponins of tribulus terrestris group. Cerebral ischemia reperfusion model was established with suture emboli method in middle cerebral artery of rats. Neurological deficit scores was measured 24 hours after the cerebral reperfusion. Content of NF-κB,tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α) and interleukin-1β( IL-1β) in rat brain was detected by ELISA; expression levels of PPARγ protein in rat brain was determined by Western blot. Results Compared with the model group,nerve function injury of low dose tribulus terrestris saponin treatment group and high dose group obviously reduced( 1. 8 ± 0. 7) scores,( 1. 3 ± 0. 5) scores vs (2. 3 ± 0. 7) scores,the difference was statistically significant( P 0. 05). NF-κB,TNF-α and IL-1 β level of low dose saponins of tribulus group ( 16. 4 ± 1. 3) μg / mg,( 257 ± 110) pg / mg,( 148 ± 16) pg / mgand high dose group( 15. 0 ± 1. 2) μg/mg,( 665 ± 72) pg/mg,( 139 ± 14) pg/mgwere lower than those of the model group( 18. 4 ± 1. 5) μg/mg,( 916 ± 128) pg/mg,( 169 ± 16) pg/mg( P 0. 05). Conclusion Saponins of tribulus terrestris exerts the neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through inhibiting the inflammatory reaction,which may be associated with the increase of the PPARγ protein expression and inhibition of NF-κB inflammation signal pathway.

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8. Roaiah, M., El Khayat, Y., GamalEl Din, S. and Abd El Salam, M. – Pilot Study on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Erectile Function in Aging Males With Partial Androgen Deficiency (PADAM). J Sex Marital Ther. (2016) 42: 297

This study was conducted on 30 consecutive male patients presenting to Kasr-Al Ainy Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of manifestations of partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM). In this study (750 mg/day) of Tribulus terrestris in 3 divided doses, each of 250 mg, as an endogenous testosterone enhancer had been tried for a duration of 3 months and the evaluation of its effect had been monitored for each patient concerning its effect on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on erectile function, which was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire for those patients. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant difference in the level of LH before and after treatment. Also, the study showed statistically significant correlation between testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant correlation between the level of LH and the IIEF-5 before and after treatment.

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9. Mrinalini Kumari, Praveen Kumar and Poonam Singh – Safety Evaluation of Tribulus Terrestris on the Male Reproductive Health of Laboratory Mouse

Tribulus terrestris (TT) has emerged as an instant plant for the treatment of sexual dysfunctions and fertility related disorders in the males. The present study was aimed to assess the safety efficacy of the fruit extract of TT on the male reproduction. Animals of Group I served as control while that of II and III were administered with  100mg/kgBW/day and 200mg/kgBW/day of the fruit extract of TT, respectively, for 28 days. Testicular histology, sperm parameters, serum clinical biochemistry (SGOT, SGPT and creatinine) and tissue biochemistry (fructose in the seminal vesicle, sialic acid in the epididymis, antioxidant enzymes activity, LPO, LDH and ALP in the testis) were carried out to establish the safety of the fruit extract. Safety of the extract was evidenced by the unaltered body weight and serum clinical biochemistry. Administration of the fruit extract of TT neither interfered with the weights of the reproductive organs nor altered the sperm indices in the cauda epididymidis as well as the spermatogenic activity in the testis. The unaltered androgen – dependent biochemical markers i.e. sialic acid in the epididymis and fructose in the seminal vesicle indicated the normal status of the testosterone level. Unaltered activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes and the level of LPO suggest that the fruit extract does not cause oxidative stress. Further the unaltered activities of LDH and ALP in the testis represent normal physiological activity of the organ that could be correlated with the uninterrupted spermatogenic activity. It can, therefore, be concluded that the fruit extract of this herb could effectively be used as a natural remedy in treatment of male reproductive disorders without causing any side effects.

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10. Pavleta Tabakova, Dr. Mitko Dimitrov, Dr. Bozihdar Tashkov (head physician), Director of studies: (Prof. Dr. s. Dokumov) – Clinical treatment with Tribestan (pharmachim) in women with climacteric syndrome

The option of the research, based on the experience from the treatment of 50 patients with natural and postoperative climacterium during that experiment, as well as on the data from the previous pilot study on another 12 women with the same clinical picture is that Tribestan (Pharmachim) can successfully be used in the treatment of climacteric syndrome in females, both natural or postcastration. The absence of any adverse effects, the ready tolerance and its excellent effect makes it a desired agent for the treatment of all patients with similar complaints.

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11. Akhtari, E., Raisi, F., Keshavarz, M., Hosseini, H., Sohrabvand, F., Bioos, S., Kamalinejad, M. and Ghobadi, A. – Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study. Daru (2014) 22: 40.

Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p < 0.001), desire (p < 0.001), arousal (p = 0.037), lubrication (p < 0.001), satisfaction (p < 0.001) and pain (p = 0.041) domains of FSFI. Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted.

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12 de Souza, K., Vale, F. and Geber, S. – Efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Menopause (2016) 23: 1252

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women and evaluate its effect on the serum levels of testosterone.

We performed a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, during 18 months. A total of 45 healthy sexually active postmenopausal women reporting diminished libido were selected to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to receive 750 mg/d of T terrestris or placebo for 120 days. Randomization was performed using sealed envelopes. All participants answered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Sexual Quotient-female version questionnaires and had their serum levels of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin measured. A total of 36 participants completed the study, because 3 from each group were excluded due to side effects and 3 dropped out due to personal reasons. FSFI questionnaire results demonstrated an improvement in all domains in both groups (P < 0.05) except for lubrication which was improved only in the study group. QS-F results showed a significant improvement in the domains of desire (P < 0.01), arousal/lubrication (P = 0.02), pain (P = 0.02), and anorgasmia (P < 0.01) in women who used T terrestris, whereas no improvement was observed in the placebo group (P > 0.05). Moreover, free and bioavailable testosterone levels showed a significant increase in the T terrestris group (P < 0.05). Tribulus terrestris might be a safe alternative for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women, because it was effective in reducing symptoms with few side effects. Its probable mechanism of action involves an increase in the serum levels of free and bioavailable testosterone.

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13 K. Milasius, R. Dadeliene, Ju. Skernevicius – The influence of the Tribulus terrestris extract on the parameters of the functional preparadness and athletes’ organism homeostase

The influence of the Tribulus terrestris extract on the parameters of the functional preparadness and athletes. organism homeostase was investigated. It was established the positive impact of dietary supplement .Tribulus. (Optimum Nutrition, USA) using per 1 capsule 3 times a day during 20 days on athletes. physical power in various energy producing zones: anaerobic alactic muscular power and anaerobic alactic glycolytic power statistically reliable increased. Tribulus terrestris extract, after 20 days of consuming it, did not have essential effect on erythrocytes, haemoglobin and thrombocytes indices. During the experimental period statistically importantly increased percentage of granulocytes and decreased percentage of leucocytes show negative impact of this food supplement on changes of leucocytes formula in athletes. blood. Creatinkinase concentration in athletes. Blood statistically importantly has increased and creatinine amount has had a tendency to decline during 20 days period of consuming Tribulus terrestris extract. The declining tendency of urea, cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations has appeared. The concentration of blood testosterone increased statistically reliable during the first half (10 days) of the experiment; it did not grow during the next 10 days while consuming Tribulus still.

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14. Jameel Mohd, Ansari Javed Akhtar, Ali Abuzer, Ahamad Javed, Ali M., Tamboli Ennus – Pharmacological scientific evidence for the promise of tribulus terrestris

The usage of plants, plant extracts or plant-derived pure chemicals for disease management, become a therapeutic modality, which has stood the test of time. In the present r eview, we focus on pharmacological profile (in tabular form) of Tribulus terrestris L., apart from Phytochemistry, Taxonomy and Traditional uses. Data were l ocated, selected and extracted from SCI database, Medline, Pubmed, Highwire a nd Google Scholar. Fruits and seeds of Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae) are of immense importance in oriental medicine because they are used as an aphrodisiac, diuretic and anthelmintic, as well as to treat coughs and kidney failure. Tribulus terrestris L. has reported to have antimicrobial, antihypertension, diuretic, antiacetylcholine, haemolytic activity, spermatogenesis and libido enhancer, antitumor activity and effects on cardiovascular system. Furostanol and spirostanol saponins, flavonoid glycosides, alkaloids, steroidal saponins named terrestrosins A, B, C, D and E, F-gitonis, gitnin and amides have been reported to occur in Tribulus terrestris L. T raditionally T. terrestris is used in folk medicine a s a tonic, aphrodisiac, palliative, a stringent, stomachic, antihypertensive, diuretic, lithon-triptic, cordial drug and uri nary anti-infective. The ash of the whole plant is good for external application in rheumatic-arthritis.

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15. Naveen Khatak & Pradeep Kumar Singh – Beneficial effect of aqueous extract of tribulus terrestris on serum glutamate pyruvic transaminase in albino rat

In recent times focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large number of evidences have collected to show immense potential of medicinal plant used in various traditional system. More than 1300 plants have been studied during last ten-years period (Solecki, 1975). Seven of these are medicinal plants still used throughout the herbal world (Bensky and Gamble, 1993). The ancient cultures people methodically and scientifically collect information on herbs and developed well-defined herbal pharmacopoeias. Indeed swell into 20th century much of the pharmacopoeia of scientific medicine was derived from the herbal lore of native people. Many drugs including strychnine, aspirin, taxol, curare and ergot are of herbal origin. About one quarter of the prescription drugs dispensed by community pharmacies in the United States contain at least one active ingredient derived from the plant material (Farnsworth et al., 1985 and Acherknecht, 1973).

Tribulus terrestris has many medicinal uses. It has been a constituent in tonics in Indian Ayurveda practice, where it is known by its Sanskrit name “gokshura”. (MHFW, Government of India, 2001). It is also used as an aphrodisiac in Ayurveda. Some have compared the tonic properties of Tribulus terrestris to the effects of ginseng, but these occur due to entirely different mechanisms. Serum Glutamate Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) is the member of the transaminase family of enzymes. Transaminase referred to as transaminase amino trasnferases; facilitate mainly in the liver, catalyses the transfer of amino groups between L-alanine and glutamate to meet physiological needs. SGPT is found in large amounts in the liver and small amounts of this enzyme are found in the heart, muscle and kidney. When the liver is injured or inflamed, the levels of in the blood usually rise; therefore, this test is performed to check for signs of liver diseases. When body tissue or an organ such as the heart or liver is damaged, additional SGPT is released into the blood stream. The amount of SGPT in the blood is directly related to the extent of the tissue damage (Nicholas and Strevens, 2003 and De Ritis et al., 1972). Therefore, the aim of this present work is to examine the effect of the oral administration of aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris on Serum Glutamate Pyruvic Transaminase in Albino rat (Rattus norvegicus).

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16. Salgado, Marques-Silva, Gonçalves, Mathias, Aguiar, Wolff – Effect of oral administration of Tribulus terrestris extract on semen quality and body fat index of infertile men

Male fertility can be evaluated through complete semen analysis. Plants belonging to the Tribulus genus are known for their role in enhancing sex hormone levels and semen quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of T. terrestris on semen quality and physiological parameters. Sixty-five men with abnormal semen evaluation were included in this study, in which they were prescribed with oral administration of Androsten® (250 mg of Tribulus terrestris dried extract per capsule). Body fat percentage, lean muscle mass gain, fluctuation in steroid hormone levels and all semen parameters were analysed during the period of treatment. The results demonstrated that decrease in the percentage of body fat and increase in lean mass were significant, as well as increase in dihydrotestosterone levels. Complete semen analysis evaluated at the end of treatment showed significant enhancement in sperm concentration, motility and liquefaction time. Protodioscin, the main phytochemical agent of the Tribulus genus, acts on sertoli cells, germ cell proliferation and growth of seminiferous tubules. This component is known to convert testosterone into dihydrotestosterone, which plays important roles in male attributes. Our results indicate the therapeutic use of Tribulus terrestris by men presenting altered semen parameters, and/or undergoing infertility treatment.

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17. A. Adimoelja – Phytochemicals: modern views and breakthrough in traditional herbal management of sexual dysfunctions

Traditional herbs have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the management of erectile dysfunction and have become known world-wide as an ‘instant’ treatment. The modern view of the management of erectile dysfunction subscribes to a single etiology, i.e. the mechanism of erection. A large number of pharmacological agents are orally consumed and vasoactive agents inserted intraurethrally or injected intrapenially to regain good erection. Modern phytochemicals have been developed from traditional herbs. Phytochemicals focus their mechanism of healing action of the root cause, i.e. the inability to control the proper function of the whole body system. Hence phytochemicals manage erectile dysfunction in the frame of sexual dysfunction as a whole entity. Protodioscin is a phytochemical agent derived from Tribulus terrestris L plant, which has been clinically proven to improve sexual desire and enhance erection via the conversion of protodioscin to DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone). Preliminary observations suggest that Tribulus terrestris L grown on different soils does not consistently produce the active component protodioscin. Further photochemical studies of many other herbal plants are needed to explain the inconsistent result found with other herbal plants, such as in diversities of Ginseng, Eurycoma longifolia, Pimpinella pruacen, Muara puama, Ginkgo biloba, Yohimbe etc.

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18. A.W. Nasution – Effect of Tribulus terrestris treatment on impotence and libido disorders

To test the effectiveness of Tribulus terrestris in treating impotence and male libido disorders, we enrolled 11 subjects, composed of 4 men diagnosed with lowered or nonexistent libido and 7 impotent men. To these two groups, 3 x 1 Libilov tablets were administered per day for 2 weeks, without any additional vitamin supplements or pharmaceutical therapeutics. 50% of the subjects with reduced libido reported increased sex drive after Libilov treatment. Close to 60% of impotent subjects experienced improved erection, including prolonged duration of erection after treatment. This trial suggested that even a short period of treatment with Libilov was effective in treating these two conditions. Furthermore, as with previous trials, no adverse side-effects were observed.

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19. Ganzera, E. Bediri., A. Khan – Determination of Steroidal Saponins in Tribulus terrestris by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Evaporative Light Scattering Detection, 2001 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 90:1752–1758, 2001.

This paper describes the first analytical method suitable for the determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris. A separation by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was achieved by using a reversed‐phase (RP‐18) column, evaporative light scattering (ELS) detection, and a water/acetonitrile gradient as the mobile phase. The marker compound, protodioscin, was detected at a concentration as low as 10.0 μg/mL. Several different samples of plant material were successfully analyzed, and depending on origin and plant part used for extraction, significant differences in the composition of the saponins were observed. The analysis of market products showed considerable variations of 0.17 to 6.49% in the protodioscin content.

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20. Karimi Jashni, Malekzadeh Shiravani, Hoshmand – The effect of the Tribulus terrestris extract on spermatogenesis in the rat

According to our antecedents, in addition to other pharmacological properties, Tribulus terrestris increases sexual functioning and libido in men. Due to the fact that the benefits of herbal drugs should be approved clinically in the laboratory, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on the primary spermatocyte in rat.

Material and Methods:

In this experimental study, thirty five mature male Wistar rats with average weight of 180 ± 10 g and age of 2-3 months were randomly divided into five groups of seven each. Group I served as a control and group II as a experiment group (normal saline, 2.5 ml) and groups III, IV and V were treated with three different doses of oral TT extract (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively) once daily for 8 weeks. After the last treatment, the rats were sacrificed and their testis was removed, fixed and studied using light microscope. The data were analyzed using Anova.

Results:

The results of this study showed that the mean number of primary spermatocytes in the 3rd experimental group (10 mg/kg/body) increased significantly compared with the control group (P<0.01). But Tribulus terrestris extract had no effect on the mean number of primary spermatocytes in the other experimental groups.

Conclusion:

The above results showed that Tribulus terrestris can probably balance the functions of the male reproductive system and can be used in treatment of male infertility, while effecting the testis spermatocyte.

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21. Saurabh Chhatre, Tanuja Nesari, Gauresh Somani, Divya Kanchan, and Sadhana Sathaye – Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its valueadded utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

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22. Postigo S, Lima SM, Yamada SS, dos Reis BF, da Silva GM, Aoki T. – Assessment of the Effects of Tribulus Terrestris on Sexual Function of Menopausal Women.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to study the effects of Tribulus terrestris on sexual function in menopausal women.

METHODS:

This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that included 60 postmenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. The women were divided into two groups, placebo group and Tribulus group, and evaluated by using the Sexual Quotient-female version (SQ-F) and Female Intervention Efficacy Index (FIEI) questionnaires.

RESULTS:

There was no significant difference between the groups in age, age at menopause, civil status, race, and religion. In the evaluation with the SQ-F questionnaire, there were significant differences between the placebo (7.6 ± 3.2) and Tribulus (10.2 ± 3.2) groups in the domains of desire and sexual interest (p ≤ 0.001), foreplay (3.3 ± 1.5 versus 4.2 ± 1.0) (p ≤ 0.01), arousal and harmonious interaction with the partner (5.7 ± 2.1 versus 7.2 ± 2.6) (p ≤ 0.01), and comfort in sexual intercourse (6.5 ± 2.4 versus 8.0 ± 1.9) (p ≤ 0.01). There was no significant difference between the placebo and Tribulus groups in the domains of orgasm and sexual satisfaction (p = 0.28). In the FIEI questionnaire, there was a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in the domains of vaginal lubrication during coitus and/or foreplay (20 versus 83.3%), sensation in the genitalia during sexual intercourse or other stimuli (16.7 versus 76.7%), sensation in the genital region (20 versus 70%), sexual intercourse and/or other sexual stimulations (13.3 versus 43.3%), and the ability to reach orgasm (20% versus 73.3%). There was no significant difference in adverse effects between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

After 90 days of treatment, at the doses used, we found Tribulus terrestris to be effective in treating sexual problems among menopausal women.

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23. Khaleghi, S., Bakhtiari, M., Asadmobini, A. and Esmaeili, F. – Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. (2016) 22: 407.

The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes’ holding time (P < .05 or P < < .01). Furthermore, viability was significantly enhanced by using T terrestris extract (P < .01). In vitro addition of the T terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity.

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24. Matina Nikolova, Georgi Penchev, Svetlana Grigorova, Dimo Penkov, Hristo Hristev, Iveta Koeva – Effect of different concentrations of tribulus terrestris dry extract on histological structure of gonads and kidneys in japanese quail

This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different doses of Bulgarian product Vemoherb-T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris) on egg production, serum level of testosterone and histological structure of gonads and kidneys in Japanese quail. In the experiment a total of 52 female and 16 male Japanese quail from Pharaon breed at the initial age of 44 days were involved. Quails were randomly divided in control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male in each. Experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4 mg/kg body weight (10 weeks); 10 mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial); 10 mg/kg body weight (10 weeks) for Ist, IInd, IIIrd treated groups respectively. A significant increase of ovary weight in quails from IIIrd experimental group (P < 0.01) in comparison with the control was measured. Egg production in IInd and IIIrd treated groups increased significantly (P < 0.01) than the control group. Testosterone level of males from IIIrd experimental group enhanced significantly (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) than other groups. The ovary core part of females from IIIrd experimental group contained a much lower number of mature follicles in comparison to the other groups and its central medulla was highly vascularized. Tribulus terrestris extract in a dose of 10 mg/kg stimulates the production of male reproductive cells, while the dose of 4 mg/kg caused a delay of spermatozoa production. Histological analysis showed that in all experimental groups the structure of the kidneys was preserved and that the higher doses lead to certain reduction of the parenchyma.

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*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. 

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