VemoHerb Tribulus Cichorium

12.90 

Description

Dry extracts from Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris and Chicory.
VemoHerb® Tribulus Cichorium supports the healthy functions of healthy prostate, liver, kidneys and gall.*

How and Why It Works?

The plant complex of furostanol saponins, flavonoids and coumarin derivatives in VemoHerb® Tribulus Cichorium supports the hormonal balance (testosterone and progesterone) and sexual health, especially in periods when as a consequence of certain circumstances, hormones are produced less in the body.* [1 – 3]

The flavonoids present in VemoHerb® Tribulus Cichorium influence positively the normal secretion of gastric juice and provide for the antioxidant (according to oxidation of vitamin C) and spasmolytic properties of the product.* [4, 5]

The coumarin derivatives present (esculin and cichorine) support the organism in maintaining the blood vessels’ walls strong and flexible.* [6, 7] They also support the normal functions of the gallbladder and liver.* [4, 6, 8, 9]

The dietary supplement VemoHerb® Tribulus Cichorium shows positive influence on the whole organism, as it also supports the normal activity of the stomach, intestines and liver. Cichorium is used to relief mild spasm of smooth muscles. In the folk medicine extract of Cichorium is honoured for its spasmolytic, anticoagulant, and hepatoprotective properties.* [4, 7, 10, 11]

The good health status of the body contributes for relaxed nervous system, influences positively the tonus, and enhances the sexual desire.* [12 – 16]

VemoHerb® Tribulus Cichorium supports:

The sexual enhancing functions of the organism;* [1, 2, 17 – 20]

The normal function of the liver and gallbladder;* [4, 6, 8, 9]

The general health of the organism;* [4, 10, 11, 15, 16]

The central nervous system;* [12, 13]

Тhe sexual health in men and helps with changes during menopause in women;* [1, 2, 17 – 20]

The body overcome mild mood changes associated with the menstrual cycle;*

The hormonal balance and prostate health.* [1, 2, 3, 21]

The pack contains

60 capsules

Active substances in one capsule

100,0 mg dry extract from the aerial part of the Bulgarian plant Tribulus terrestris, with a content of 60% furostanol saponins determined as protodioscin; and 100,0 mg dry extract from the aerial part of the plant Cichorium intybus, with a content of 8% flavonoids, determined as apigenin and 10% coumarins, determined as esculin.

Recommended daily dose

Take 1-2 capsules 2 times a day

Directions for use

Take between the meals or as directed on the label.

The product is a food supplement not a medical drug. The product is not a substitute for a varied diet. Do not exceed the recommended daily dose. It is not recommended for pregnant, nursing women and children!

References:

1. Milanov, S., E. Maleeva, M. Tashkov. – Tribestan effect on the concentration of some hormones in the serum of healthy subjects (1981).

Tribestan effect has been studied on the serum concentration of hypophyseal hormones, of ACTH, STH, LH, FSH, adrenal hormone aldosterone and cortisol and sex hormones – testosterone and estradiol. The experiments have been carried out on 8 males and 8 females, aged 28 – 45 years of age. The product was perorally administered in a single dose of 250 mg, three times daily for 5 days. Serum samples were withdrawn at 8 a.m. and 12 a.m., prior to and post treatment. The product has been established not to change essentially the concentrations of adrenal hormones and of ACTH. The hypophyseal-gonadal axis however has significantly been affected in the females with predominantly increased concentration of FSH and estradiol and in the males – mainly of LH and the testosterone. The mechanism of that action is presumed to be complicated and realized both by direct effect on gonadal apparatus and by the tropic hormones. The probable established changes in the concentration of the hormones studied do not get out of the frames of the physiological limits. The lyophilized extract of Tribulus terrestris, introduced in veterinary practice as TB-68, has pronounced sex-stimulating function. The initial studies of this product showed that it stimulates the spermatogenesis of albino rats (Vankov S., et al., 1973) and enhanced the ovulation of female rats (Vankov S. et al. 1973). Zarkova S. (1976) has also established in rats an increased number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes as well as increase of neutral mucopolysaccharides in seminiferous tubules of the testes. Gendzhev Z. and S. Zarkova, in other experiments (1978) proved the increase of spermatic reserve in the epididymis of rats. With the view to the need of human medicine of a product stimulating sexual function, Tribestan was formulated on the base of the indicated phytochemical product. It contains saponins of furostanol type (Tomova M. et al., 1978). The first studies of Tribestan confirmed its high sex-stimulating activity in experimental animals (Zarkova S., 1981). Later, the clinical studies established a similar stimulating effect in humans as well (Protich M. at al. 1981). The present study was carried out with a view to throwing light on some aspects of the mechanism of that action of Tribestan, aiming at attaining an effect from the product on the serum concentration of some hypophyseal, sexual and adrenal hormones.

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2. Gauthaman, K. and Ganesan, A. – The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction – an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat. Phytomedicine (2008) 15: 44.

Hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) were evaluated in primates, rabbit and rat to identify its usefulness in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED). TT extract was administered intravenously, as a bolus dose of 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg, in primates for acute study. Rabbits and normal rats were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg of TT extract orally for 8 weeks, for chronic study. In addition, castrated rats were treated either with testosterone cypionate (10mg/kg, subcutaneously; biweekly for 8 weeks) or TT orally (5mg/kg daily for 8 weeks). Blood samples were analyzed for testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels using radioimmunoassay. In primates, the increases in T (52%), DHT (31%) and DHEAS (29%) at 7.5mg/kg were statistically significant. In rabbits, both T and DHT were increased compared to control, however, only the increases in DHT (by 30% and 32% at 5 and 10mg/kg) were statistically significant. In castrated rats, increases in T levels by 51% and 25% were observed with T and TT extract respectively that were statistically significant. TT increases some of the sex hormones, possibly due to the presence of protodioscin in the extract. TT may be useful in mild to moderate cases of ED.

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3. Roaiah, M., El Khayat, Y., Gamal El Din, S. and Abd El Salam, M. – Pilot Study on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Erectile Function in Aging Males With Partial Androgen Deficiency (PADAM). J Sex Marital Ther. (2016) 42: 297.

This study was conducted on 30 consecutive male patients presenting to Kasr-Al Ainy Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of manifestations of partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM). In this study (750 mg/day) of Tribulus terrestris in 3 divided doses, each of 250 mg, as an endogenous testosterone enhancer had been tried for a duration of 3 months and the evaluation of its effect had been monitored for each patient concerning its effect on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on erectile function, which was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire for those patients. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant difference in the level of LH before and after treatment. Also, the study showed statistically significant correlation between testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant correlation between the level of LH and the IIEF-5 before and after treatment.

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4. S. Nandagopal and B.D. Ranjitha Kumari – Phytochemical and Antibacterial Studies of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) - A Multipurpose Medicinal Plant

Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) belongs to the family Asteraceae and it is a small aromatic biennial or perennial herb. The whole plant contains a number of medicinally important compounds such as inulin, esculin, volatile compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes), coumarins, flavonoids and vitamins. In the present study, we evaluated the phytochemical analysis for the presence of various secondary metabolites and antibacterial activity of the root extracts of chicory against pathogenic bacteria like gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) bacteria by in vitro agar well diffusion method. The hexane and ethyl acetate root extracts of chicory showed pronounced inhibition than chloroform, petroleum ether and water extracts. Root extracts showed more inhibitory action on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi than Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli.

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5. Adele Papetti, Maria Daglia, and Gabriella Gazzani – Anti- and Pro-oxidant Water Soluble Activity of Cichorium Genus Vegetables and Effect of Thermal Treatment

Both the pro- and antiradical water soluble activity, toward DPPH(*), ROO(*), OH(*) radicals found in seven diet vegetables belonging to the Cichorium genus, and the effects of boiling, freezing, and freeze-drying on such activities were investigated. The vegetables were three red cultivars of Cichorium intybus var. silvestre from three different areas of production, that is, chicory from Chioggia, Treviso, and Verona, C. intybus var. foliosum (Belgian chicory), C. endivia var. latifolium (escarole), C. endiviavar. crispum (“crispa”), and a hybrid vegetable obtained by the cross between C. intybus var. silvestre and C. endivia var. latifolium (chicory from Castelfranco). The juices obtained by simple centrifugation of vegetables operating at 2 or 25 degrees C and submitted to the thermal technological treatments were assessed for antiradical activity using the DPPH(*) assay, the linoleic acid-beta-carotene system, and the deoxyribose assay. In all three assays used, each vegetable juice was shown to possess antiradical activity; there was a significant level in the C. endivia and the Belgian chicories and higher levels in the red C. intybus vegetables and the hybrid vegetable. All juice behaviors in the linoleic acid-beta-carotene system indicate that they also contain a thermally unstable component, which in a cold medium promptly promoted and accelerated linoleic acid peroxidation, therefore masking the presence of any thermally stable antiperoxyl radical components. The presence of these components, which efficiently protect linoleic acid from peroxidation, can be singled out only after inactivation by heating, or separation by dialysis, of the pro-oxidant components. Dialysis fractions showed that the pro-oxidant component has MW > 50000 Da and that the juices contain a number of antioxidant components which contribute to their antiradical activity.

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6. A.H.Gilani, K.H.Janbaz – Evaluation of the liver protective potential of Cichorium intybus seed extract on Acetaminophen and CCl4-induced damage

The hepatoprotective activity of aqueous-methanolic extract of Cichorium intybus seeds was investigated against acetaminophen and CCl4-induced hepatic damage. Acetaminophen produced 100% mortality at the dose of 1 g/kg in mice while pretreatment of animals with plant extract (500mg/kg) reduced the death rate to 30%. Acetaminophen at the dose of 640 mg/kg produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the significant (P < 0.01) rise in serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), GOT and GPT to 393 ± 28, 767 ± 215 and 692 ± 191 IU/L (n = 10) respectively, compared to respective control values of 198 ± 15, 76 ± 07 and 39 ± 09. Pretreatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg/kg) significantly lowered (P < 0.01), the respective serum ALP, GOT and GPT levels to 228 ± 16, 68 ± 10 and 41 ± 08. Similarly, a hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 (1.5 mL/kg; orally) significantly raised (P < 0.01), the serum ALP, GOT and GPT levels to 312 ± 20, 503 ± 98 and 407 ± 109 IU/L (n = 10) respectively, compared to respective control values of 215 ± 16, 79 ± 18 and 49 ± 10. The same dose of plant extract (500 mg/kg) was able to prevent significantly (P < 0.05) the CCl4-induced rise in serum enzymes and the estimated values of ALP, GOT and GPT were 222 ± 27, 114 ± 23 and 68 ± 14 respectively. Moreover, it prevented CCl4-induced prolongation in pentobarbital sleeping time confirming hepatoprotectivity and validates the folkloric uses of this plant in liver damage.

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7. Assessment report on Cichorium intybus L., radix

Cichorium intybus  L, is an erect perennial herb 80±90cm in height usually with bright blue flowers, rarely white or pink. It has a fleshy taproot up to 75cm in length. Cichorium intybus is a member of the Asteraceae family. The genus Cichorium consists of six species with major distribution areas in Europ e and Asia. Member of the species are cultivated in Europe for salad leaves, chicons (blanched buds), or for roots (var. sativum), which are baked, ground, and used as a coffee substitute and additive.The name of the plant is derived from Greek and Latin.Cichorium originates from χ_ω (kio)(I go) = χωρ_ον and chorion = field i, ie, in connection with the occurrence of the plant stands. “Intybus” is partly derived from the Greek _ντομος (éntomos) = cut, because of the leaves, and partly from the Latin in = in and = tubus tube, to indicate the hollow stem. Popular common names of the plant are (Common) chicory, bluesailor’s succory and coffee weed.

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8. Zafar, Mujahid Ali S – Anti-hepatotoxic effects of root and root callus extracts of Cichorium intybus L.

The natural root and root callus extracts of Cichorium intybus were compared for their anti-hepatotoxic effects in Wistar strain of Albino rats against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage. The increased levels of serum enymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase) and bilirubin observed in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride were very much reduced in the animals treated with natural root and root callus extracts and carbon tetrachloride. The decreased levels of albumin and proteins observed in rats after treatment with carbon tetrachloride were found to increase in rats treated with natural root and root callus extracts and carbon tetrachloride. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Results of this study revealed that Cichorium intybus root callus extract could afford a better protection against carbon tetrachloride induced heptocellular damage as compared to the natural root extract.

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9. T.S. Mohamed Saleem, C. Madhusudhana Chetty, S. Ramkanth, V.S.T. Rajan, K. Mahesh Kumar, Gauthaman K – Hepatoprotective Herbs – A Review

Liver is a vital organ play a major role in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics from the body. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the phar-maceutical industry and drug regulatory agencies. Liver cell injury caused by various toxic chemicals (certain anti-biotic, chemotherapeutic agents, carbon tetrachloride (CCL4), thioacetamide (TAA) etc.), excessive alcohol con-sumption and microbes is well-studied. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders in this condition also cause further damage to the liver. Hence, Herbal drugs have become increasingly popular and their use is wide-spread. Herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of liver diseases for a long time. A number of herbal preparations are available in the market. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemi-cals from medicinal plants that have been tested in hepatotoxicity models using modern scientific system.

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10. Renée A. Street, Jasmeen Sidana, Gerhard Prinsloo – Cichorium intybus: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

The genus Cichorium (Asteraceae) is made up of six species with major geographical presence in Europe and Asia. Cichorium intybus, commonly known as chicory, is well known as a coffee substitute but is also widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes. Although this plant has a rich history of use in folklore, many of its constituents have not been explored for their pharmacological potential. Toxicological data on C. intybus is currently limited. This review focuses on the economic and culturally important medicinal uses of C. intybus. Traditional uses, scientific validation, and phytochemical composition are discussed in detail.

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11. K. N. Venugopala, Rashmi, Odhav – Review on Natural Coumarin Lead Compounds forTheir Pharmacological Activity

Coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) is a plant-derived natural product known for its pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antihypertensive, antitubercular, anticonvulsant, antiadipogenic, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. Dietary exposure to benzopyrones is significant as these compounds are found in vegetables, fruits, seeds, nuts, coffee, tea, and wine. In view of the established low toxicity, relative cheapness, presence in the diet, and occurrence in various herbal remedies of coumarins, it appears prudent to evaluate their properties and applications further.

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12. Mengquan Lia Yue Guanb Jiaqi Liua Fengguo Zhaia Xiuping Zhanga Lixin Guana – Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by which Total Saponin Extracted from Tribulus Terrestris Protects Against Artherosclerosis

BACKGROUND/AIMS:
Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT) has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis.
METHODS:
Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT); Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca(2+) was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2) was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting.
RESULTS:
TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II.
CONCLUSION:
These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis.

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13. Zhai, Fg., Li, HZ., Zhou, FB., Lin, F., Guan, LX. – Effects of saponins of Tribulus terrestris on PPARγ and NF-κB signaling pathways expression in rat brain following cerebral ischemic injury. Med Recapitulate (2015) 21: 4539.

Objective To study and explore the effect of tribulus terrestris on the expression of peroxisome proliferators γ( PPAR γ) and nuclear factor κB( NF-κB) inflammatory signaling pathways in rat brain tissue after focal cerebral ischemia,and further explore its potential mechanisms. Methods According to random number table method,40 SD rats were randomly equally divided into sham operation group,cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model group,low-dose saponins of tribulus terrestris group and high-dose saponins of tribulus terrestris group. Cerebral ischemia reperfusion model was established with suture emboli method in middle cerebral artery of rats. Neurological deficit scores was measured 24 hours after the cerebral reperfusion. Content of NF-κB,tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α) and interleukin-1β( IL-1β) in rat brain was detected by ELISA; expression levels of PPARγ protein in rat brain was determined by Western blot. Results Compared with the model group,nerve function injury of low dose tribulus terrestris saponin treatment group and high dose group obviously reduced( 1. 8 ± 0. 7) scores,( 1. 3 ± 0. 5) scores vs( 2. 3 ± 0. 7) scores,the difference was statistically significant( P 0. 05). NF-κB,TNF-α and IL-1 β level of low dose saponins of tribulus group ( 16. 4 ± 1. 3) μg / mg,( 257 ± 110) pg / mg,( 148 ± 16) pg / mgand high dose group( 15. 0 ± 1. 2) μg/mg,( 665 ± 72) pg/mg,( 139 ± 14) pg/mgwere lower than those of the model group( 18. 4 ± 1. 5) μg/mg,( 916 ± 128) pg/mg,( 169 ± 16) pg/mg( P 0. 05). Conclusion Saponins of tribulus terrestris exerts the neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through inhibiting the inflammatory reaction,which may be associated with the increase of the PPARγ protein expression and inhibition of NF-κB inflammation signal pathway.

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14. Akhtari, Raisi, Keshavarz, Hosseini, Sohrabvand, Bioos, Kamalinejad, M. and Ghobadi, A. – Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study. Daru (2014) 22: 40.

Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p < 0.001), desire (p < 0.001), arousal (p = 0.037), lubrication (p < 0.001), satisfaction (p < 0.001) and pain (p = 0.041) domains of FSFI. Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted.

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15. Saurabh Chhatre, Tanuja Nesari, Gauresh Somani, Divya Kanchan, and Sadhana Sathaye – Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its valueadded utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

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16. Naveen Khatak & Pradeep Kumar Singh – Beneficial effect of aqueous extract of tribulus terrestris on serum glutamate pyruvic transaminase in albino rat

In recent times focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large number of evidences have collected to show immense potential of medicinal plant used in various traditional system. More than 1300 plants have been studied during last ten-years period (Solecki, 1975). Seven of these are medicinal plants still used throughout the herbal world (Bensky and Gamble, 1993). The ancient cultures people methodically and scientifically collect information on herbs and developed well-defined herbal pharmacopoeias. Indeed swell into 20th century much of the pharmacopoeia of scientific medicine was derived from the herbal lore of native people. Many drugs including strychnine, aspirin, taxol, curare and ergot are of herbal origin. About one quarter of the prescription drugs dispensed by community pharmacies in the United States contain at least one active ingredient derived from the plant material (Farnsworth et al., 1985 and Acherknecht, 1973).
Tribulus terrestris has many medicinal uses. It has been a constituent in tonics in Indian Ayurveda practice, where it is known by its Sanskrit name “gokshura”. (MHFW, Government of India, 2001). It is also used as an aphrodisiac in Ayurveda. Some have compared the tonic properties of Tribulus terrestris to the effects of ginseng, but these occur due to entirely different mechanisms. Serum Glutamate Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) is the member of the transaminase family of enzymes. Transaminase referred to as transaminase amino trasnferases; facilitate mainly in the liver, catalyses the transfer of amino groups between L-alanine and glutamate to meet physiological needs. SGPT is found in large amounts in the liver and small amounts of this enzyme are found in the heart, muscle and kidney. When the liver is injured or inflamed, the levels of in the blood usually rise; therefore, this test is performed to check for signs of liver diseases. When body tissue or an organ such as the heart or liver is damaged, additional SGPT is released into the blood stream. The amount of SGPT in the blood is directly related to the extent of the tissue damage (Nicholas and Strevens, 2003 and De Ritis et al., 1972). Therefore, the aim of this present work is to examine the effect of the oral administration of aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris on Serum Glutamate Pyruvic Transaminase in Albino rat (Rattus norvegicus).

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17. Justino Mameri Filho; Mauro Abi Haidar; José Maria Soares Júnior; Edmund Chada Baracat – Effects of the association of estrogen and androgen in postmenopausal women

PURPOSE: to evaluate the effects of the association of estrogen and androgen on the quality of life and sexuality of women during climacterium.
METHODS: ninety-six postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms and sexual dysfunction were included. The participants were randomly divided into three treatment groups with 32 pacients each: placebo, conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (0.625 mg per day) and CEE (0.625 mg per day) associated with methyltestosterone (2.5 mg per day). The length of the treatment period was three months. The Women Health Questionnaire (WHQ) and the Modified Sexuality Questionnaire were applied to evaluate the quality of life and sexuality before and after the treatment. Some parameters of cardiovascular risk, endometrial echo and hepatic toxicity were evaluated. ANOVA was used for data analysis followed by the Fisher test and the Shapiro-Wilk post hoc test.
RESULTS: the improvement in WHQ parameters was significant in the hormonal treatment groups (CEE and CEE + methyltestosterone) compared to the placebo group. However, there were no differences in somatic symptoms among the three groups. The association of estrogen with androgen significantly improved sexual function (score (mean): 64 vs 67, p<0.05) and depressive humor (score (mean): 75 vs 80, p<0.05) compared to estrogen alone. This therapy also presented a large number of WHQ questions with a high score (p<0.05). The use of CEE associated with methyltestosterone decreased the total cholesterol (212±42 and 194±43, before and after the treatment, respectively) and HDL colesterol (56±16 and 48±14, before and after the treatment, respectively), and slightly increased the endometrial echo (4.7±2.3 and 5.5±2.3, before and after the treatment, respectively). No signifcant changes in liver enzymes during the treatment period was detected.
CONCLUSIONS: estrogen associated with methyltestosterone resulted in significant improvement in the quality of life and sexuality of postmenopausal women. This effect was superior to estrogen alone and placebo. The effect of treatment with the estrogen-androgen association was evident regarding depressive humor and sexual function questions of the WHQ.

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18. Dr. Pavleta Tabakova, Dr. Mitko Dimitrov, Dr. Bozihdar Tashkov (head physician), Director of studies: (Prof. Dr. s. Dokumov) – Clinical treatment with Tribestan (pharmachim) in women with climacteric syndrome

The option of the research, based on the experience from the treatment of 50 patients with natural and postoperative climacterium during that experiment, as well as on the data from the previous pilot study on another 12 women with the same clinical picture is that Tribestan (Pharmachim) can successfully be used in the treatment of climacteric syndrome in females, both natural or postcastration. The absence of any adverse effects, the ready tolerance and its excellent effect makes it a desired agent for the treatment of all patients with similar complaints.

19. Postigo, Lima, Yamada, dos Reis, da Silva, Aoki – Assessment of the Effects of Tribulus Terrestris on Sexual Function of Menopausal Women.

OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study was to study the effects of Tribulus terrestris on sexual function in menopausal women.
METHODS:
This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that included 60 postmenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. The women were divided into two groups, placebo group and Tribulus group, and evaluated by using the Sexual Quotient-female version (SQ-F) and Female Intervention Efficacy Index (FIEI) questionnaires.
RESULTS:
There was no significant difference between the groups in age, age at menopause, civil status, race, and religion. In the evaluation with the SQ-F questionnaire, there were significant differences between the placebo (7.6 ± 3.2) and Tribulus (10.2 ± 3.2) groups in the domains of desire and sexual interest (p ≤ 0.001), foreplay (3.3 ± 1.5 versus 4.2 ± 1.0) (p ≤ 0.01), arousal and harmonious interaction with the partner (5.7 ± 2.1 versus 7.2 ± 2.6) (p ≤ 0.01), and comfort in sexual intercourse (6.5 ± 2.4 versus 8.0 ± 1.9) (p ≤ 0.01). There was no significant difference between the placebo and Tribulus groups in the domains of orgasm and sexual satisfaction (p = 0.28). In the FIEI questionnaire, there was a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in the domains of vaginal lubrication during coitus and/or foreplay (20 versus 83.3%), sensation in the genitalia during sexual intercourse or other stimuli (16.7 versus 76.7%), sensation in the genital region (20 versus 70%), sexual intercourse and/or other sexual stimulations (13.3 versus 43.3%), and the ability to reach orgasm (20% versus 73.3%). There was no significant difference in adverse effects between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
After 90 days of treatment, at the doses used, we found Tribulus terrestris to be effective in treating sexual problems among menopausal women.

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20. de Souza, K., Vale, F. and Geber, S. – Efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Menopause (2016) 23: 1252.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women and evaluate its effect on the serum levels of testosterone.
We performed a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, during 18 months. A total of 45 healthy sexually active postmenopausal women reporting diminished libido were selected to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to receive 750 mg/d of T terrestris or placebo for 120 days. Randomization was performed using sealed envelopes. All participants answered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Sexual Quotient-female version questionnaires and had their serum levels of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin measured. A total of 36 participants completed the study, because 3 from each group were excluded due to side effects and 3 dropped out due to personal reasons. FSFI questionnaire results demonstrated an improvement in all domains in both groups (P < 0.05) except for lubrication which was improved only in the study group. QS-F results showed a significant improvement in the domains of desire (P < 0.01), arousal/lubrication (P = 0.02), pain (P = 0.02), and anorgasmia (P < 0.01) in women who used T terrestris, whereas no improvement was observed in the placebo group (P > 0.05). Moreover, free and bioavailable testosterone levels showed a significant increase in the T terrestris group (P < 0.05). Tribulus terrestris might be a safe alternative for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women, because it was effective in reducing symptoms with few side effects. Its probable mechanism of action involves an increase in the serum levels of free and bioavailable testosterone.

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21. Karimi Jashni, Malekzadeh Shiravani, Hoshmand – The effect of the Tribulus terrestris extract on spermatogenesis in the rat

According to our antecedents, in addition to other pharmacological properties, Tribulus terrestris increases sexual functioning and libido in men. Due to the fact that the benefits of herbal drugs should be approved clinically in the laboratory, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on the primary spermatocyte in rat.
Material and Methods:
In this experimental study, thirty five mature male Wistar rats with average weight of 180 ± 10 g and age of 2-3 months were randomly divided into five groups of seven each. Group I served as a control and group II as a experiment group (normal saline, 2.5 ml) and groups III, IV and V were treated with three different doses of oral TT extract (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively) once daily for 8 weeks. After the last treatment, the rats were sacrificed and their testis was removed, fixed and studied using light microscope. The data were analyzed using Anova.
Results:
The results of this study showed that the mean number of primary spermatocytes in the 3rd experimental group (10 mg/kg/body) increased significantly compared with the control group (P<0.01). But Tribulus terrestris extract had no effect on the mean number of primary spermatocytes in the other experimental groups.
Conclusion:
The above results showed that Tribulus terrestris can probably balance the functions of the male reproductive system and can be used in treatment of male infertility, while effecting the testis spermatocyte.

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*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. 

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